A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations
automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs
enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a "complete" computer that
includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment needed and used for
"full" operation. This term may also refer to a group of computers that are linked and function
together, such as a computer network or computer cluster.
Early computers were only meant to be used for calculations. Simple manual instruments like the abacus
have aided people in doing calculations since ancient times. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some
mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms.
What Are The Parts of Computers?
Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central
processing unit (CPU) in the form of a microprocessor, along with some type of computer memory,
typically semiconductor memory chips. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical
operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored
information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices
(monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the
2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and
they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
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Now, Let us know about Hardware
Hardware can be seen touch , for example- Mouse, Printer, keyboards, Moniters and many more.Computer
hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and related devices. Internal hardware devices
include motherboards, hard drives, and RAM. The internal hardware parts of a computer are often referred
to as components, while external hardware devices are usually called peripherals.
Now, Let us See What are Softwares
Software, instructions that tell a computer what to do. Software comprises the entire set of programs,
procedures, and routines associated with the operation of a computer system. ... A set of instructions
that directs a computer's hardware to perform a task is called a program, or software program
Now see About computer Languages
There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended for general
purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.
In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each
instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). The command to add two
numbers together would have one opcode; the command to multiply them would have a different opcode, and so
on. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex
computers have several hundred to choose from, each with a unique numerical code. Since the computer's
memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes. This leads to the important fact
that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and
can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. The fundamental concept
of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von
Neumann, or stored program
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Networking and Internet
In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known
as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the
computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and
access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and
the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were
available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications
like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies
like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous.Computers have been used to
coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the
first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems such
as Sabre. In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began
to link their computers together using telecommunications technology.
Now, I think You know much About Computers
There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of
technology, such as optical computers, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Most
computers are universal, and are able to calculate any computable function, and are limited only by their
memory capacity and operating speed. However different designs of computers can give very different
performance for particular problems; for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern
encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly.
A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to, without regard to
efficiency, alternative solutions, possible shortcuts, or possible errors in the code. Computer programs
that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.
Artificial intelligence based products generally fall into two major categories: rule based systems and
pattern recognition systems. Rule based systems attempt to represent the rules used by human experts and
tend to be expensive to develop. Pattern based systems use data about a problem to generate conclusions.
Examples of pattern based systems include voice recognition, font recognition, translation and the emerging
field of on-line marketing.
Now, I hope You Have Know All About Computers